A Activity diagram used in UML 6/9 and SysML B Bachman diagram Booch used in software engineering Block diagram Block Definition Diagram BDD used in SysML C Carroll diagram Cartogram Catalytic cycle Chemical equation Curly arrow diagram Category theory diagrams Cause-and-effect diagram Chord diagram Circuit diagram Class diagram from UML 1/9 Collaboration diagram from UML 2.0 Communication diagram from UML 2.0 Commutative diagram Comparison diagram Component diagram from UML 3/9 Composite structure diagram from UML 2.0 Concept map Constellation diagram Context diagram Control flow diagram Contour diagram Cordier diagram Cross functional flowchart D Data model diagram Data flow diagram Data structure diagram Dendrogram Dependency diagram Deployment diagram from UML 9/9 Dot and cross diagram Double bubble map used in education Drakon-chart E Entity-Relationship diagram ERD Event-driven process chain Euler diagram Eye diagram a diagram of a received telecommunications signal Express-G Extended Functional Flow Block Diagram EFFBD F Family tree Feynman diagram Flow chart Flow process chart Flow diagram Fusion diagram Free body diagram G Gantt chart shows the timing of tasks or activities used in project management Grotrian diagram Goodman diagram shows the fatigue data example: for a wind turbine blades H Hasse diagram HIPO diagram I Internal Block Diagram IBD used in SysML IDEF0 IDEF1 entity relations Interaction overview diagram from UML Ishikawa diagram J Jackson diagram K Karnaugh map Kinematic diagram L Ladder diagram Line of balance Link grammar diagram M Martin ERD Message Sequence Chart Mind map used for learning, brainstorming, memory, visual thinking and problem solving Minkowski spacetime diagram Molecular orbital diagram N N2 Nassi Shneiderman diagram or structogram a representation for structured programming Nomogram Network diagram O Object diagram from UML 2/9 Organigram Onion diagram also known as "stacked Venn diagram" P Package diagram from UML 4/9 and SysML Parametric diagram from SysML PERT Petri net shows the structure of a distributed system as a directed bipartite graph with annotations Phylogenetic tree - represents a phylogeny evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms Piping and instrumentation diagram P&ID Phase diagram used to present solid/liquid/gas information Plant Diagram Pressure volume diagram used to analyse engines Pourbaix diagram Process flow diagram or PFD used in chemical engineering Program structure diagram R Radar chart Radial Diagram Requirement Diagram Used in SysML Rich Picture R-diagram Routing diagram S Sankey diagram represents material, energy or cost flows with quantity proportional arrows in a process network. Sentence diagram represents the grammatical structure of a natural language sentence. Sequence diagram from UML 8/9 and SysML SDL/GR diagram Specification and Description Language. SDL is a formal language used in computer science. Smith chart Spider chart Spray diagram SSADM Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology used in software engineering Star chart/Celestial sphere State diagram are used for state machines in software engineering from UML 7/9 Swim lane Syntax diagram used in software engineering to represent a context-free grammar Systems Biology Graphical Notation a graphical notation used in diagrams of biochemical and cellular processes studied in Systems biology System context diagram System structure Systematic layout planning T Timing Diagram: Digital Timing Diagram Timing Diagram: UML 2.0 TQM Diagram Treemap U UML diagram Unified Modeling Language used in software engineering Use case diagram from UML 5/9 and SysML V Value Stream Mapping Venn diagram Voronoi diagram W Warnier-Orr Williot diagram Y Yourdon-Coad see Edward Yourdon, used in software engineering
The kidney conserves water by first diluting urine as it moves through the loop of Henle and then concentrating urine in the distal tubules and collecting ducts (the latter under the influence of antidiuretic hormone or ADH).
The kidneys can regulate water levels in the body; they conserve water if you are dehydrated, and they can make urine more dilute to expel excess water if necessary. Water is lost through the skin through evaporation from the skin surface without overt sweating and from air expelled from the lungs.
Water helps the kidneys remove wastes from your blood in the form of urine. Water also helps keep your blood vessels open so that blood can travel freely to your kidneys, and deliver essential nutrients to them. But if you become dehydrated, then it is more difficult for this delivery system to work.
The functional unit of the kidney is called the nephron. This is where all the reabsorption takes place. The nephrons consists of the proximal and distal convoluted tubules, the loop of Henle and the collecting duct. Water is reabsorbed partly in the loop of Henle, and mainly in the collecting duct, at the end of the Nephron.
In the filtration phase, the kidney's tubules collect water and solutes from the blood. At the reabsorption phase, the blood takes back the good stuff. Blood then gets rid of the waste and puts it into the excretory tubule in the secretion phase.
The human kidney plays a critical role in water homeostasis. Every day, plasma ultrafiltration produces 150 L of filtrate (ie, 100 mL min) via approximately 2 million nephrons. This primary urine is almost entirely (ie, 90%) reabsorbed in parallel to electrolytes.
ADH (antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin) is a hormone that up regulates the amount of aquaporins into the luminal membrane in the distal convoluted tubule of the kidneys, this is the eonly part of the tubule that water reaborption is under physiological control.
The kidneys, in order to conserve water, have to retain extra Na (and urea) to strengthen the intramedullary hypertonicity. During this process, extra Na is being ‘saved’. The surplus of body‐fluid Na raises osmolality,18 stimulating AVP release. It is conceivable that the combined effects of high‐salt and low‐water intake exert a major role in the epidemics of non‐communicable chronic diseases including HTN and CKD (Figure (Figure2 2).
The third and final stage of urine formation is water conservation. The kidneys are not only responsible for eliminating metabolic wastes from the body but they also prevent excessive water loss, in doing so. This is very important in maintaining the body's fluid balance. Urine is made up mostly of water.